Land preparation for crops is the most important task in the cultivation process for that crop. Different land preparation methods and different land preparation tools/equipment used for each crop.
As Rice and Wheat are the two important crops in India cultivated for Kharif and Rabi season respectively, provides high production to fulfil the need of huge Indian population. Here we are going to discuss the equipment required for the land preparation for rice crop.
Why Land Preparation / Land Levelling Is Necessary for Rice Cultivation?
- For bringing undulated field leftover in the wake of puddling into the evened outfield
- For keeping up uniform profundity of water in fundamental field
- For expanding water use effectiveness by keeping up shallow depth of water
- For better usage of supplements by overseeing uniform depth of water all through the field
- For complete depleting of water
- For uniform Oxygen dissemination
- For decrease of profound permeation of water
Primary Tillage Equipment for Rice Crop Cultivation
Disc plough used to obtain required tilth of 10-15 cm depth in the field. Ploughing is beneficial for open soil for drying, uproot stubbles and weeds, burry trash under the soil and kill weeds.
Tractor ranges from 35 -50 HP highly beneficial for disc plough operations. One most important point to be considered while working with a disc plough is if the plough is not properly adjusted then it started pulling the tractor on one side.
Mould board plough / MB Plough
The underlying opening of wet soils of rice field should be possible with the least water in the field with mouldboard plough fitted with a plate or a plough.
The disc coulter assists with limiting the stopping up of the mouldboard furrow with weeds, stubble and the soil. It requires almost five days to finish the underlying furrowing activity of one hectare.
Water is to be allowed in after the underlying opening and left for a time of around 2 weeks for the decay of the weeds and complete soaking of soil lumps.
Secondary Tillage Equipment for Rice Cultivation
The secondary tillage operations comprise of two activities by disc harrow finishes the puddling of one ha in 12 to 15 hours.
In very much drenched soil disc harrow can be utilized for puddling without ploughing and in such case, 4 to 5 activities are for the most part required.
Disc harrow for puddling ought to be given scrubbers for keeping the disc clean from mud and weeds. A light sort of pair disc harrow weight of 40 kg with 8 plates separated at 13 cm each having a functioning width of 110cm in two possess is truly appropriate for puddling activity in a rice field.
Rotavator used to develop suitable tilth for seed germination/planting of rice. The use of rotavator in rice cultivation is limited because of high energy requirement than other land preparation equipment. Above 40 HP tractor required for proper operation with rotavator in a rice field.
The comb harrow usually utilized in the Philippines and as of late presented in India, is a straightforward effective one for puddling of wet field, after beginning opening has been made by the furrow.
The tines of the harrow enter around 15 cm somewhere down in the wet furrowed soil and impact puddling by mixing and combing activity.
Puddler is utilized for land preparation of paddy fields with standing water after ploughing. It separates the hunks and beats the soil.
The primary motivation behind puddling is to decrease percolation of water, to execute weeds by breaking down and to work with the relocating of paddy seedlings by making the soil gentler. Puddling is done in standing water of 5 to 10 cm profundity.
Power Tiller with Rotavator
About 10 H.P power tiller with rotavator is productive in a puddling of wet terrains. On account of the wide contrast between the direct speed of the tiller and the rotating pace of the rotavator, it is feasible to get land thoroughly puddled to a noticed profundity.
Puddling and evening out or stomping on of green manure crops should be possible in one activity by other tiller keeping the rotavator on rapid at 505 RPM and tiller on low speed of 24 to 39 m/min.
Mechanical Rice Transplanters
Accessible with its own wellspring of power of 3-HP diesel motor. Covers near about eight lines all at once with a column to push dispersing of 23 cm. Arrangement available in rice transplanters to change the plant to plant distance from 10 and 12 cm beneficial for proper planting.
Arrangement for cage wheel for land preparation and tyre wheel for transport. Notice the profundity of planting the switch and change appropriately.
For the effective activity of the transplanter, the land planning and information on the mechanical arrangements joined with the transplanter are fundamental to be known.